April 19, 2015

teat end health

teat and udder condition scores

Teat Condition Scoring Chart

A score chart to evaluate teat condition of dairy cattle.

Udder Hygiene Scoring Chart

A score chart to evaluate udder hygiene of dairy cattle.

Method for Assessing Teat and Udder Hygiene

Bade, R.D., Reinemann, D.J. and P.D. Thompson, Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Develops a method of quantifying the bacteria population on cows’ teats that is simple, effective and inexpensive enough to be widely used on farms without requiring special test equipment.

A Tool Box for Assessing Cow, Udder and Teat Hygiene

Nigel Cook and Doug Reinemann, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Tools to assess the degree of contamination in the environment: hygiene scores of the cows, culture of the bedding and assessment of teat end contamination.

evaluation of teat end health

Evaluation of Bovine Teat Condition in Commercial Dairy Herds: 1. Non-Infectious Factors

Neijenhuis, G.A., Morgan, W.F., Reinemann D.J. et al., The Research Institute for Animal Husbandry
Reviews non-infectious factors affecting short- or medium-term changes in teats, proposes a simple protocol for systematic evaluation of teats in commercial dairies and presents guidelines for interpretation of these observations.

Evaluation of Bovine Teat Condition in Commercial Dairy Herds: 2. Infectious Factors and Infections

J.E. Hillerton et al., Institute for Animal Health, Compton, UK
Describes the various agents and mechanisms that may affect the condition of the teats of the milking dairy cow.

Evaluation of Bovine Teat Condition in Commercial Dairy Herds: 3. Getting the Numbers Right

D.J. Reinemann et al., The Research Institute for Animal Husbandry
Provides simple guidelines for statistical evaluation of the teat conditions.

Addressing Teat Condition Problems

I. Ohnstad et al., Teat Club International
Describes effective treatments, changes in management and changes in machine settings that appear to provide successful solutions for particular teat condition problems in commercial herds.

Relationship Between Teat-End Callosity or Hyperkeratosis and Mastitis

F. Neijenhuis et al., The Research Institute for Animal Husbandry
Covers information about the relationship between teat-end callosity and udder health.

All in the Design

from ‘Ruminations’, by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs livestock technology specialists
Your teat dip cup’s style could affect your herd’s mastitis risk. This article explains proper milking procedures and the ideal teat dip cup.


UW Milk Quality and the UW Milking Research and Instruction Lab bring you the series, Evaluating Milking Performance. Throughout the series, you’ll learn how to perform various milking time tests to assess the final goal of milking cows quickly, completely and gently. You’ll also be able to assess your herd’s teat end health and reduce teat end conditions, such as hyperkerotosis.

Evaluating Milking Performance: Measuring Claw Vacuum

In this first episode, Dr. Doug Reinemann and researcher John Penry show you how to set up, execute and evaluate testing average claw vacuum in your milking system in a number of different ways and techniques. Measuring average claw vacuum is the most important and direct measurement of the performance of the milking machine.

Evaluating Milking Performance: Teat End Health

Dr. Doug Reinemann and John Penry continue UW Milk Quality’s Evaluating Milking Performance series with the topic ‘Teat End Health.’ In this episode, they discuss three different aspects of teat condition: hyperkeratosis, teat end congestion and teat canal keratin dynamics; and how to evaluate levels in the herd.

Evaluating Milking Performance: Teat Barrel Congestion

‘Teat Barrel Congestion’ is the third topic in the Evaluating Milking Performance series produced by UW Milk Quality. Dr. Doug Reinemann and John Penry provide an overview of this teat condition and discuss factors that influence levels in herd during milking.

Evaluating Milking Performance: Liners

This episode is a continuation of the UW Milk Quality series, “Evaluating Milking Performance.” Research assistant, John Penry, sits down with Dr. Doug Reinemann for a discussion on evaluating liner performance.