stray voltage

September 26, 2011
What Do We Know About Stray Voltage?

D.J. Reinemann, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2009.
A comprehensive review on the research of stray voltage and its effects on dairy cows that has been conducted over the past 40 years.

Literature Review and Synthesis of Research Findings on the Impact of Stray Voltage on Farm Operations

D.J. Reinemann, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.
Synthesizes the main findings and conclusions of the body of scientific literature on the potential for tingle voltage or at power frequencies, to directly or indirectly affect farm output or productivity.

Stray Voltage Field Guide

D.J. Reinemann, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2007.
Understanding the way that stray voltage affects animals.

animal response

Comparison of Dairy Cow Aversion to Continuous and Intermittent Current

Reinemann, D.J., Stetson, L.E. and S.D. LeMire, 2004.
Compares aversive responses to steady versus pulsed stimuli applied to pathways typical of those encountered in the field, and compares the relative effects of current pulses applied once per second with those applied less frequently.

Dairy Cow Response to the Electrical Environment: A Summary of Research conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

D.J. Reinemann, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003.
Summarizes the rationale for and the results of these studies on animal response to various electrical exposures.

Comparison of Behavioral and Physiological Response to Electric Shock in Lactating Dairy Cows

D.J. Reinemann et al., Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002.
Determines if the method of exposure used would provide more consistent results with physiological responses.

Milking Performance of Dairy Cows Subjected to Electrical Current and Induced Milking Machine Problems

Reinemann, D.J., Rasmussen, M.D. and S.D. LeMire, 2000.
Measures changes in milking performance of cows exposed to commonly encountered milking machine problems.

Comparison of Behavioral to Physiological Response of Cows Exposed to Electric Shock

D.J. Reinemann et al. 1999.
Investigates the relationship between behavioral responses and plasma cortisol concentration in cows, compares dairy cow sensitivity to current applied from hoof-hoof with the muzzle-hoof pathway, and compares cortisol reactions to current exposure with another common stressor, hoof trimming.

Dairy Cattle Drinking Behavior and Stray Voltage Exposure

S.D. LeMire et al., Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1997.
Assesses exposure risks for stanchioned dairy cattle to intermittent voltage applied to the water line (water bowls).

Dairy Cow Sensitivity to Short Duration Electrical Currents

D.J. Reinemann et al. 1996.
Determines the sensitivity of dairy cows to a wide frequency range of transient currents.

Water, Feed and Milk Production Response of Dairy Cattle Exposed to Transient Currents

D.J. Reinemann et al. 1995.
Investigates aversive responses to 60 Hz transient currents.

field studies

Power Line Induced Current in the Earth Determined by Magnetotelluric Techniques

L. Pellerin et al. 2004.
High sensitivity magnetotelluric equipment was used to obtain measurements of potential difference and resistivity, from which the magnitude of the earth current vector was calculated.

Putting Stray Voltage in Perspective: The Wisconsin Experience Revisited

Reines, S., Cook, M.A. and D.M. Dasho, Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Stray Voltage Analysis Team, 1998.
Measures cow contact voltages as well as primary and secondary neutral voltages have been well defined by the PSCW.

Stray Voltage Update

D.J. Reinemann et al., Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1997.
Provides an update of stray voltage issues which have emerged and the results of recent research and field surveys on stray voltage and related electrical phenomena which has occurred since the publication of the USDA Handbook.

Stray Voltage: The Wisconsin Experience

Reines, S., Cook, M.A. and D.M. Dasho, Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Stray Voltage Analysis Team, 1995.
Presents data from more than 1000 stray voltage investigations conducted in Wisconsin by the Wisconsin Public Service Commissions Stray Voltage Analysis Team and investor owned utilities.

test procedures

Results of the University of Wisconsin Stray Voltage Earth-Current Measurement Experiment

D.L. Alumbaugh and L. Pellerin, Geological Engineering Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003.
Investigates the possible effects of earth currents on bovine production.

Relationships Between Secondary Neutral and Cow Contact Voltages

Reines, S., Cook, M.A. and D.M. Dasho, Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Stray Voltage Analysis Team, 1996.
Determines the possible use of neutral to earth voltage as a predictor for the voltages measured at cow contact.

Electrical Service to Agricultural Buildings: Four-Wire and Three-Wire Systems

Reines, S., Cook, M.A. and D.M. Dasho, Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Stray Voltage Analysis Team, 1995.
Provides a description of the four wire systems, a test to determine if it has been installed correctly and recommendations on its application to reduce stray voltage.

Effects of Source Resistance on Cow Contact Voltage Measurements

Reines, S., Cook, M.A. and D.M. Dasho, Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Stray Voltage Analysis Team, 1994.
Presents results of source resistance measurements made on 43 farms in order to correctly assess stray voltage in animal confinement facilities.