liners and cow physiology

October 13, 2011

historical videos

Introduction to Milking Pulsation Phases
Introduction to Teatcup Action

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papers

A quarter milking analysis device: Development and demonstration

J Upton, DJ Reinemann, JF Penry, and PD Thompson, Biosystems Engineering, 147(2016)259-264.
Description of the Mi4 device and test methods for investigating the effects of vacuum level, pulsation settings and liner characteristics on milk flow rate and teat end congestion during the peak flow period of milking.

Assessing liner performance using on-farm milk meters

JF Penry, S Leonardi, J. Upton, PD Thompson and DJ Reinemann, 2016 J. Dairy Sci. 99:1-10.
Methods and results for creating average milk flow rate (AMF = total yield/total cups-on time) response surfaces for explanatory variables Liner type, milking system vacuum (Vsystem) and pulsator ratio (PR) are described. The accuracy of liner performance assessment in commercial parlors fitted with milk meters can be improved by using a central composite experimental design with a repeated center point treatment, rotating different clusters to different stalls (milk meters), and adjusting performance estimates for similar claw vacuum and pulsation conditions.

Effect of pulsation rest phase duration on teat end congestion

J Upton, JF Penry, MD Rasmussen, PD Thompson and DJ Reinemann, 2016.  Journal of Dairy Science 99:1-8.
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of d-phase (rest phase) duration of pulsation on the teat canal cross-sectional area during the period of peak milk flow from bovine teats. We observed a significant reduction in the estimated cross-sectional area of the teat canal with d-phase durations of 50 and 100 ms when compared with d-phase durations of 150, 175, 225, 250, and 300 ms. No significant difference was found in the estimated cross-sectional area of the teat canal for d-phase durations from 150 to 300 ms. No significant interaction was observed between the effect of d-phase and b-phase durations, vacuum level, or liner overpressure.

Methods of Estimating Liner Compression

S. Leonardi, JF Penry, FM Tangorra, PD Thompson and DJ Reinemann, 2015.  Journal of Dairy Science, 98(10)6905-6912.
The aim of this study was to compare 2 methods of measuring overpressure (OP) using a new test device designed to make OP measurements more quickly and accurately. The OP results for the 6 liners were also compared with liner compression estimated on the same liners with a novel artificial teat sensor (ATS).

Unraveling the Mysteries of Liner Compression

D.J. Reinemann and G.A. Mein, 2011.
Summarizes the influence of liner properties on liner compression.

Interactions of Vacuum, B-Phase Duration and Liner Compression on Milk Flow Rates in Dairy Cows

Bade, R.D., Reinemann, D.J., Zucali, M., Ruegg, P.L. and P.D. Thompson, University of Wisconsin, 2009.
Quantifies the milking machine effects of vacuum, b-phase and liner compression on milk flow rates to gain a better understanding of the physiological responses of teat tissues to machine milking.

Biomechanics of Milking: Teat-Liner Interactions

Bade, R., Reinemann, D.J. and G.A. Mein, Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2009.
Clarifies the concept of liner compression and shows the practical importance of understanding and controlling its effects.

Ultrasonic Assessment of Teat Tissue Congestion

C. Spanu et al. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.
Quantifies the effects of milking vacuum, B=phase duration and liner compression on changes in teat wall thickness during milking and the recovery rate of teat tissues after milking.

Understanding the Influence of Machine Milking on Teat Defense Mechanisms

D.J. Reinemann et al., Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.
Quantifies the milking machine effects of milking vacuum level, bphase and LC on milk flow rates and to gain a better understanding of the physiological responses of teat tissues to machine milking.

Effects of Liner Compression on Teat-End Hyperkeratosis

 Zucali, M. et al., University of Milan, Italy, 2008.
A guide to understand the milking machine factors that contribute to rough teat ends.

Instrument for Measuring Mouthpiece Depth and Effective Length of Liner

MTT Agrifood Research, Finland, 2007.
Defines and describes how some essential dimensions of a liner are measured.

Sources of Variability in Compressive Load Applied to Bovine Teats

Bade, R., Reinemann, D.J. and G.A. Mein, Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2007.
Identifies sources of variability in CL applied to teats as measured using the SMF method.

The Purpose of the Milking Routine and Comparative Physiology of Milk Removal

D.A. Costa and D.J. Reinemann, Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004.
Discusses the objectives of the pre-milking routine: sanitation, clinical mastitis detection and stimulation.

The Need for Stimulation in Various Bovine Breeds and Other Species

D.A. Costa and D.J. Reinemann, Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003.
Reviews the scientific literature on the stimulation requirements for milk ejection in bovines and other species.

Where the Rubber Meets the Teat and What Happens to Milking Characteristics

G. Mein et al., Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003.
Describes the effects of liners and pulsators on milking characteristics in ways that might improve our understanding of these interactions at the real interface between the milking machine and the cow.

Completeness of Milking

Graeme Mein, Institute of Land & Food Resources, University of Melbourne, 2001.
Lecture notes on the completeness of milking.

Development and Testing of a Device to Measure Compressive Teat Load Applied to a Bovine Teat by the Closed Teatcup Liner

Davis, M.A., Reinemann, D.J. and G.A. Mein, 2001.
Describes the design and testing of a device to measure compressive load applied to a teat by the closed milking liner as compared to a “comparison only” device.

Effects of Milking Vacuum on Milking Performance and Teat Condition

D.J. Reinemann et al., Milking Research and Instructional Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2001.
Measures changes in milking performance and teat condition in response to changing vacuum level at the beginning of the current millennium with cows and milking machine settings typical of current practice; specifically, detacher settings that are more aggressive than those historically used in the field.

Effect of Liner Age on Milking Characteristics of the Liner

M.A. Davis and D.J. Reinemann, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2001.
Measures changes in the following milking characteristics of US liners as they aged: milk yield, milking duration, average milk flow rate, peak milk flow rate, mouthpiece chamber vacuum and Irregular Vacuum Fluctuations (IVF).

Methodology of Measuring Strip Yield

M.A. Davis and D.J. Reinemann, Milking Research and Instruction Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2001.
Documents the distribution of strip yield for two methods of hand collection and two methods of machine collection and to develop recommendations for maximum strip yield criterion for each collection method.

Blood Flow and Oxygen Concentration of Teat-End Tissue Before and After Machine Milking

Maltz, E., Reinemann, D.J. and M.A. Davis, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000.
Investigates blood supply and oxygen concentration supply to teat-end tissue before and after milking.